IELTS READING PRACTICE TESTS WITH ANSWER
Table of contents
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Sheet glass manufacture: the float process
Glass, which has been made since the time of the Mesopotamians and Egyptians, is little more than a mixture of sand, soda ash and lime. When heated to about 1500 degrees Celsius, this becomes a molten mass that hardens when slowly cooled. The first sucessful method for making clear, flat glass involved spinning. This method was very effective as the glass had not touched any surfaces between being soft and becoming hard, so it stayed perfectly unblemished, with a ‘fire finish’. However, the process took a long time and was labour intensive.
Nevertheless, demand for flat glass was very high and glassmakers across the world were looking for a method of making it continuous ribbon process involved squeezing molten glass through two hot rollers, similar to an old mangle. This allowed glass of virtually any thickness to be made non-stop, but the rollers would leave both sides of the glass marked, and these would then need to be ground ang polished. This part of the process rubbed away around 20 per cent of the glass, and the machines were very expensive.
The float process for making flat glass was invented by Alistair Pilkington. This process allows the manufacture of clear, tinted and coated glass for buildings, and clear and tinted glass for vehicles. Pilkington had been experimenting with improving the melting process, and in 1952 he had the idea of using a bed of molten metl to form the flat glass, eliminating altogether the need for rollers within the float bath. The metal had to melt at a temperature less than the hardening point of glass (about 600C), but could not boil at a temperature below the temperature ot the molten glass (about 1500C). The best metal for the job was tin.
The rest of the concept relied on gravity, which guaranteed that the surface of the molten metal was perfectly flat and horizontal. Consequently, when pouring molten glass onto the molten tin, the underside of the glass would also be perfectly flat. If the glass were kept hot enough, it would flow over the molten tin until the top surface was also flat, horizontal and perfectly parallel to the bottom surface. Once the glass cooled to 604C or less it was too hard to mark and could be transported out of the cooling zone by rollers. The glass settled to a thickness of six millimetres because of surface tension interactions between the glass and the tin. By fortunate coincidence, 60 per cent of the flat market at the time was for six-millimetre glass.
Pilkington built a pilot plant in 1953 and by 1955 he had convinced his company to build a full-scale plant. However, it took 14 months of non-stop production, costing the company £100,000 a month, before the plant produced any usable glass. Furthermore, once they succeeded in making marketable flat glass, the machine was turned off for a service to prepare it for years of continuous production. When it started up again it took another four months to get the process right again. They finally succ, needed in 1959 and there are now float plants all over the world, with each able to produce 100 tons of glass every day, non-stop for around 15 years.
Float plants today make glass of near optical quality. Several processes – melting, refining, homogenising – take place simultaneously un the 2000 tonnes of molten glass in the furnace. They occur in separate zones in a complex glass flow driven by high temperatures. It adds up to a continuous melting process, lasting as long as 50 hours, that delivers glass smoothly and continuosly to the float bath, and form there to a coating zone and finallly a heat treatment zone, where stresses formed during cooling are relieved.
The principle of float glass is unchanged since the 1950s. However, the product has changed dramatically, from a single thickness of 6.8 mm to a range from sub-millimetre to 25 mm, from a robbon frequently marred by inclusions and bubbles to almost optical perfection. To ensure the highest quality, inspection takes place at every stage. Occasinally, a bubble is not removed during refining, a sand grain refuses to melt, a tremor in the tin puts ripples into the glass ribbon. Automated on-line inspection does two things. Firstly, it reveals process faults upstream that can be corrected. Inspection technology allows more than 100 the ribbon, million measurements a second to be made across the ribbon, locating flaws the unaided eye would be unable to see. Secondly, it enables computers downstream to steer cutters around flaws.
Float glass is sold by the square metre, and at the final stage computers translate customer requirements into patterns of cuts designed to minimise waste.
Complete the table and diagram below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers inboxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
Could produce glass sheets of varying
Non- stop process
Glass was 5 .......................
20% of glass rubbed away
Machines were expensive
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? Inboxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statements agrees with the information FALSE if the statements contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
9 - The metal used in the float process had to have specific properties. .............
10 - Pilkington invested some of own money in his float plant. ..............
11 - Pilkington’s first full-scale plant was an instant commercial success. ..............
12 - The process invented by Pilkington has now been improved. ...............
13 - Computers are better than humans at detecting faults in glass. ...............
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.
THE LITTLE ICE AGE
A This book will provide a detailed examination of the Little Ice Age and climatic shifts, but, before I embark on that, let me provide a historical context. We tend to think of climate – as opposed to weather – as something unchanging, yet humanity has been at the mercy of climate change for its entire existence, with at least eight glacial episodes in the past 730,000 years. Our ancestors adapted to the universal but irregular global warming since the end of the last great Ice Age, around 10,000 years ago, with dazzling opportunism. They developed strategies for surviving harsh drought cycles, decades of heavy rainfall or unaccustomed cold; adopted agriculture and stock-raising , which revolutionized human life; and founded the world’s first pre-industrial civilisations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Americas. But the price of sudden climate change, in famine, disease and suffering, was often high.
B. The Little Ice Age lasted from roughly 1300 until the middle of the nineteenth century. Only two centuries ago, Europe experienced a cycle of bitterly cold winters; mountain glaciers in the Swiss Alps were the lowest in recorded memory, and pack ice surrounded Iceland for much of the year. The climatic events of the Little Ice Age did more than help shape the modern world. They are the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming. The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw of rapid climatic shifts, few lasting more than a quarter-century, driven by complex and still little understood interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. The seesaw brought cycles of intensely cold winters and easterly winds, then switched abruptly to years of heavy spring and early summer rains, mild winters, and frequent Atlantic storms, or to periods of droughts, light northeasterly winds, and summer heat waves.
C. Reconstructing the climate changes of the past is extremely difficult, because systematic weather observations began only a few centuries ago, in Europe and North American. Records from India and tropical Afica are even more recent. For the time before records began, we have only ‘proxy records’ reconstructed largely from tree rings and ice cores, supplemented by a few incomplete written accounts. We now have hundreds of tree-ring records from throughout the northern hemisphere, and many from south of the equator, too, amplified with a growing body of temperature data from ice cores drilled in Antarctica, Greenland, the Peruvian Andes. And other locations. We are close to a knowledge of annual summer and winter temperature variations over much of the northern hemisphere going back 600 years.
D. This book is a narrative history of climatic shifts during the past ten centuries, and some of the ways in which people in Europe adapted to them. Part One describes the Medieval Warm Period, roughly 900 to 1200. During these three centuries, Norse voyagers from Northern Europe explored northern seas, settled Greenland, and visited Northern America. It was not a time of uniform warmth, for then, as always since the Great Ice Age, there were constant shifts in rainfall and temperature. Mean European temperatures were about the same as today, perhaps slightly cooler.
E. It is known that the Little Ice Age cooling began in Greenland and the Arctic in about 1200. As the Arctic ice park spread southward, Norse voyages to the west were rerouted into the open Atlantic, then ended altogether. Storminess increased in the North Atlantic and North Sea. Colder, much wetter weather descended on Europe between 1315 and 1319 , when thousands perished in a continent-wide famine. By 1400, the weather had become decidedly more unpredictable and stormier, with sudden shifts and lower temperatures that culminated in the cold decades of the late sixteenth century. Fish were a vital commodity in growing towns and cities, where food supplies were a constant concern. Dried cod and herring were already the staples of the European fish trade, but changes in water temperatures forced fishing fleets to work further offshore. The Basques, Dutch, and English developed the first offshore fishing boats adapted to a colder and stormier Atlantic. A gradual agricultural revolution in northern Europe stemmed from concerns over food supplies at a time of rising populations. The revolution involved intensive commercial farming and the growing of animal fodder on land not previously used for crops. The increased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine.
F. Global temperatures began to rise slowly after 1850, with the beginning of the Modern Warm Period. There was a vast migration from Europe by land-hungry farmers and others, to which the famine caused by the Irish potato blight contributed, to North American, Australian, New Zealand, and southern Africa. Millions of hectares of forest and woodland fell before the newcomer’s axes between 1850 and 1890, as intensive European farming methods expanded across the world. The unprecedented land clearance released vast quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, triggering for the time twentieth century as the use of fossil fuels proliferated and greenhouse gas levels continued to soar. The rise has been even steeper since the early 1908s. The Little Ice Age has given way to a new climatic regime, marked by prolonger and steady warming. At the same time, extreme weather events like Category 5 hurricanes are becoming more frequent.
Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F. Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B and D-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes14-17on your answer sheet.
14. Paragraph B
15. Paragraph D
16. Paragraph E
17. Paragraph F
List Of Headings
i. Predicting climatic changes
ii. The relevance of the Little Ice Age today
iii. How cities contribute to climate change
iv. Human impact on the climate
v. How past climatic conditions can be determined
vi. A growing need for weather records
vii. A study covering a thousand years
ix. Enough food at fast
Questions 18 - 22
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I ,below. Write the correct letter, A-I, inboxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.
Weather during the Little Ice Age
Documentation of past weather conditions is limited: our main sources of knowledge of conditions in the distant past are 18....................... and 19........................ We can reduce that the Little Ice Age was a the time of 20...................... , rather than of consistent freezing. Within it there were some periods of very cold winters, others of 21........................ and heavy rain, and yet other that saw 22...................... with no rain at all.
A. climatic shifts B. ice cores C. tree rings
D. glaciers E. interactions F. weather observations
G. heat waves H. storms I. written accounts
Write the correct letter, A, B, or C, in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.
23. Many Europeans started farming abroad
24. The cutting down of trees began to affect the climate.
25. Europeans discovered other lands.
26. Changes took place in fishing patterns.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages.
The meaning and power of smell
The sense of smell, or olfaction, is powerful. Odours affect us on a physical, psychological and social level. For the most part, however, we breathe in the aromas which surround us without being consciously aware of their importance to us. It is only when the faculty of smell is impaired for some reason that we begin to realise the essential role the sense of smell plays in our sense of well-being.
A. A survey conducted by Anthony Synott at Montreal’s Concordia University asked participants to comment on how important smell was to them in their lives. It became apparent that smell can evoke strong emotional respones. A scent associated with a good experience can bring a rush of joy, while a foul odour or one associated with a bad memory may make us grimace with disgust. Respondents to the survey noted that many of their olfactory likes and dislikes were based on emotional associations. Such associations can be powerful enough so that odours that we would generally label unpleasant become agreeable for particular individuals. The perception of smell, therefore, consist not only of the odours themselves, but of the experiences and emotions associated with them.
B. Odours are also essential cues in social bonding. One respondent to the survey believed that there is no true emotional bonding without touching and smelling a loved one. In fact, infants recognise the odours of their mothers soon after birth and adults con often indentify their children or spouses by scent. In one well-known test, women and men were able to distinguish by smell alone clothing worn by their marriage partners from similar clothing worn by other people. Most of the subjects would probably never have given much throught to odour as a cue for indentifying family members before being involved in the test, but as the experiment revealed, even when not consciously considered, smells register.
C. In spite of its importance to our emotional and sensory lives, smell is probably the most undervalued sense in many cultures. The reason often given for the low regard in which smell is held is that, in comparison with its importance among animals, the human sense of smell is feeble and undeveloped. While it is true that the olfactory powers of humans are nothing like as fine as those possessed by certain animals, they are still remarkably acute. Our noses are able to recognise thousands of smells, and to perceive odours which are present only in extremely small quantities.
D. Smell, however, is a highly elusive phenomenon. Odours, unlike colours, for instance, cannot be named in many languages because the specific vocabulary simply doesn’t exist. ‘It smells like …,’ we have to say when describing an odour, struggling to express our olfactory experience. Nor can odours be recorded : there is no effective way to either capture or store them over time. In the realm of olfaction, we must make do with descriptions and recollections. This has implications for olfactory research.
E. Most of the research on smell undertaken to date has been of a physical scientific nature. Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the biological and chemical nature of olfaction, but many fundamental questions have yet to be answered. Researchers have to decide whether smell is one sense or two – one responding to odours, and how smells can be measured objectively given the non- physical components. Questions like these mean that interest in the psychology of h smell is inevitably set to play an increasingly important role for researchers.
F. However, smell is not simply a biological and psychology phenomenon. Smell is cultural, hence it is a social and historical phenomenon. Odours are invested with cultural values: smells that are considered to be offensive in some cultures may be perfectly acceptable in others. Therefore, our sense of smells is a means of, and model for, interacting with the world. Different smells can provide us with intimate and emotionally charged experience and the value that we attach to these experiences is interiorised by the members of society in a deeply personal way. Importantly, our commonly held feelings about smells can help distinguish us from other cultures. The study of the cultural history of smell is, therefore, in a very real sense, an investigation into the essence of human culture.
Reading Passage 3has six paragraphs, A-F. Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 27-32 on your sheet.
27. Paragraph A
28. Paragraph B
29. Paragraph C
30. Paragraph D
31. Paragraph E
32. Paragraph F
List Of Headings
i The difficulties of talking about smells
ii The role of smell in personal relationships
iii Future studies into smell
iv The relationship between the brain and the nose
v The interpretation of smells as a factor in defining groups
vi Why our sense of smell is not appreciate
vii Smell is our superior sense
viii The relationship between smell and feelings
Questions 33 - 36
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.
33. According to the introduction, we become aware of the importance of smell when
A. We discover a new smell
B. we experience a powerful smell
C. our ability to smell is damaged.
D. we are surrounded by odours.
34. The experiment described in paragraph B
A. shows how we make use of smell without realizing it.
B. demonstrates that family member have is learnt
C. proves that a sense of smell is learnt
D. compares the sense of smell in males and females.
35. What is the writer doing in paragraph C?
A. supporting other research
B. making aproposal
C. rejecting a common belief
D. describing limitations
36. What does the writer suggest about the study of smell in the atmosphere in paragraph E?
A. The measurement of smell is becoming more accurate.
B. Researchers believe smell is a purely physical reaction
C. Most smells are inoffensive.
D. Smell is yet to be defined.
Complete the sentence below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY FROM the passage for the each answer. Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your sheet.
- Tests have shown that odours can help people recognize the ........................... belong t their husband and wives.
- Certain linguistic groups may have difficulty have difficulty describing smell because they lack the appropriate ........................
- The sense of smell may involve response to ............................ which do not smell, in addition to obvious odours.
- Odours regarded as unpleasant in certain ........................... are not regarded as unpleasant in others.
- NOT GIVEN
You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
AUSTRALIA’S SPORTING SUCCESS
A. They play hard, they play often, and they play to win. Australian sports teams win more than their fair share of titles, demolishing rivals with seeming ease. How do they do it? A big part of the secret is an extensive and expensive network of sporting academies underpinned by science and medicine. At the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), hundreds of youngest and pros live and train under the eyes of coaches. Another body, the Australian Sports Commission (ASC), finances programmes of excellence in a total of 96 sports for thousands of sportsmen and women. Both provide intensive coaching, training facilities and nutritional advice.
B. Inside the academies, science takes centre stage. The AIS employs more than 100 sports scientists and doctors, and collaborates with scores of others in universities and research centres. AIS scientists work across a number of sports, applying skills learned in one - such as building muscle strength in golfers – to others, such as swimming and squash. They are backed up by technicians who designs instrument s to collect data from athletes. They all focus on one aim: winning. ‘We can’t waste our time looking at ethereal scientific questions that don’t help the coach work with an athlete and improve performance,’ says Peter Fricker, chief of science at AIS.
C. A lot of their work comes down to measurement - everything from the exact angle of a swimmer’s dive to the second-by-second power output of a cyclist. This data is used to wring improvements out of athletes. The focus is on individuals, tweaking performances to squeeze an extra hundredth of a second here, an extra millimetres there. No gain is too slight to bother It’s the tiny, gradual improvements that add up to world-beating results. To demonstrate how the system works, Bruce Mason at AIS shows off the prototype of 3D analysis tool for studying swimmers. A wire-frame model of a champion swimmer slices through the water, her arms moving in slow motion. Looking side-on, Mason measures the distance between strokes. From above, he analyses how her spine swivels. When fully developed, this system will enable him to build a biomechanical profile for coaches to use to help budding swimmers. Mason’s contribution to sport also includes the development of the SWAN (Swimming Analysis) system now used in Australian national competitions. It collects images from digital cameras running at 50 frames a second and breaks down each part of a swimmer’s performance into factors that can be analysed individually – stroke length, stroke frequency, average duration of each stroke, velocity, start, lap and finish times, and so on. At the end of each race, SWAN spits out data on each swimmer.
D. ‘Take a look’, says Mason, pulling out a sheet of data. He point out the data on the swimmers in second and third place, which shows that the one who finished third actually swam faster. So why did he finish 35 hundredths of a second down? ‘His turn times were 44 hundredths of a second behind the other guy,’ says Mason. ‘If he can improve on his turns, he can do much better’. This is the kind of accuracy that AIS scientists’ research is bringing to a range of sports. With the Cooperative Research Centre for Micro Technology in Melbourne, they are developing unobtrusive sensors that will be embedded in an athlete’s clothes or running shoes to monitor heart rate, sweating, heat production or any other factor that might have an impact on an athlete’s ability to run. There’s more to it than simply measuring performance. Fricker gives the example of athletes who may be down with coughs and colds 11 or 12 times a year. After years of experimentation, AIS and the University of Newcastle in New South Wales developed a test that measures how much of the immune-system protein immunoglobulin A is present in athletes’ saliva. If lgA levels suddenly fall below a certain level, training is eased or dropped altogether. Soon, lgA levels start rising again, and the danger passes. Since the test were introduced, AIS athletes in all sports have been remarkably successful at staying healthy.
E. Using data is a complex business. Well before a championship, sports scientists and coaches start prepare the athlete by developing a ‘competition model’, based on what they expect will be the winning times. ‘You design the model to make that time’, says Mason. ‘A start of this much, each tree-swimming period has to be this fast, with a certain stroke frequency and stroke length, with turn done in these times’. All the training is then geared towards making the athlete hit those targets, both overall and for each segment of the race. Techniques like these have transformed Australia into arguably the world’s most successful sporting nation.
F. Of course, there’s nothing to stop other countries copying – and many have tried. Some years ago, the AIS unveiled coolant-lined jackets for endurance athletes. At the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996, these sliced as much as two per cent off cyclists ‘and rowers’ times. Now everyone uses them. The same has happened to the ‘altitude tent’, developed by AIS to replicate the effect of altitude training at sea level. But Australia’s success story is about more than easily copied technological fixes, and up to now no nation has replicated its all-encompassing system.
Reading Passage 1 has six paragraphs, A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
1. a reference to the exchange of expertise between different sports -->> ....................
2. an explanation of how visual imaging is employed in investigations -->> .....................
3. a reason for narrowing the scope of research activity -->> ...................
4. how some AIS ideas have been reproduced -->> ..................
5. how obstacles to optimum achievement can be investigate -->> ...................
6. an overview of the funded support of athletes -->>......................
7. how performance requirements are calculated before an event -->>...................
Classify the following techniques according to whether the write states they
A. are currently exclusive used by Australians
B. will be used in the future d by Australians
C. are currently used by both Australians and their rivals.
Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 8-11 on your answer sheet.
10. protein tests
11. altitude tents
8 - ............
9 - .............
10 - .............
11 - .............
Questions 12 and 13
Answer the question below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS ANDIOR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.
12. What is produced to help an athlete plan their performance in event?
13. By how much did some cyclists’ performance improve at the 1996 Olympic Games?
12 - ....................................
13 - ....................................
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
DELIVERING THE GOODS
The vast expansion in international trade owes much to a revolution in the business of moving freight
A. International trade is growing at a starting pace. While the global economy has been expanding at a bit over 3% a year, the volume of trade has been rising at a compound annual rate of about twice that. Foreign products, from meat to machinery, play a more important role in almost every economy in the world, and foreign markets now tempt businesses that never much worried about sales beyond their nation’s borders.
B. What lies behind this explosion in international commerce? The general worldwide decline in trade barriers, such as customs duties and import quotas, is surely one explanation. The economic opening of countries that have traditionally been minor players is another. But one force behind the import-export boom has passed all but unnoticed: the rapidly failing cost of getting goods to market. Theoretically, in the world of trade, shipping costs do not matter. Goods, once they have been made, are assumed to move instantly and at no cost from place to place. The real world, however, is full of frictions. Cheap labour may make Chinese clothing competitive in America, but if delays in shipment tie up working capital and cause winter coats to arrive in spring, trade may lose its advantages.
C. At the turn of the 20th century, agriculture and manufacturing were the two most important sectors almost everywhere, accounting for about 70% of total output in Germany, Italy and France, and 40-50% in American, Britain an Japan. International commerce was therefore dominated by raw materials, such as wheat, wood and iron ore, or processed commodities, such as meat and steel. But these sorts of products are heavy and bulky and the cost of transporting them relatively high.
D. Countries still trade disproportionately with their geographic neighbors. Overtime, however, world output has shifted into goods whose worth is unrelated to their size and weight. Today, it is finished manufactured products that dominate the flow of trade, and, thanks to technological advances such as lightweight components, manufactured goods themselves have tended to become lighter and less bulky. As a result, less transportation is required for every dollar’s worth of imports or exports.
E. To see how this influences trade, consider the business of making disk drives for computers. Most of the world’s disk-drive manufacturing is concentrated in South-east Asia. This is possible only because disk drives, while valuable, are small and light and so cost little to ship. Computer manufactures in Japan or Texas will not face hugely bigger freight bills if they import drives from Singapore rather than purchasing them on the domestic market. Distance therefore posses no obstacle to the globalisation of the disk-drive industry.
F. This is even more true of the fast- growing information industries. Films and compact discs cost little to transport, even by aeroplane. Computer software can be ‘exported’ without ever loading it onto a ship, simply by transmitting it over telephone lines from one country to another, so freight rates and cargo-handling schedules become insignificant factors in deciding where to make the product. Businesses can locate based on other considerations, such as the availability of labour, while worrying less about the cost of delivering their output.
G. In many countries deregulation has helped to drive the process along. But, behind the scenes, a series of technological innovations known broadly as containerization and intermodal transportation has led to swift productivity improvements in cargo-handing. Forty years ago, the process of exporting or importing involved a great many stages of handling, which risked portions of the shipment being damaged or stolen along the way. The invention of the container crane made it possible to load and unload containers without capsizing the ship and the adoption of standard container sizes allowed allowed almost any box to be transported on any ship. By 1967, dual-purpose ships, carrying loose cargo in the hold* and containers on the deck, were giving way to all-container vessels that moved thousands of boxes at a time.
H. The shipping container transformed ocean shipping into a highly efficient, intensely competitive business. But getting the cargo to and from the dock was a different story. National governments, by and large, kept a much firmer hand on truck and railroad tariffs than on charges for ocean freight. This started changing, however, in the mid-1970s, when America began to deregulate its transportation industry. First airlines, then road hauliers and railways, were freed from restrictions on what they could carry, where they could carry, where they could haul it and what price they could charge. Big productivity gains resulted. Between 1985 and 1996, for example, America’s freight railways dramatically reduced their employment, trackage, and their fleets of locomotives - while increasing the amount of cargo they ha hauled. Europe’s railways have also shown marked, albeit smaller, productivity improvements.
I. In America the period of huge productivity gains in transportation may be almost over, but in most countries the process still has far to go. State ownership of railways and airlines, regulation of freight rates and toleration of anti-competitive practices, such as cargo-handling monopolies, all keep the cost of shipping unnecessarily high and deter international trade. Bringing these barriers down would help the world’s economics grow even closer.
*hold: ship's storage area below deck
Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.
14. a suggestion for improving trade in the future
15. the effects of the introduction of electronic delivery
16. the similar cost involved in transporting a product from abroad or from a local supplier
17. the weakening relationship between the value of goods and the cost of their delivery
14 - ........
15 - ........
16 - ........
17 - ........
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 18-22 in your answer sheet, write
TRUE If the statement agrees with the information
FALSE If the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN If there is no information on this
18. International trade is increasing at a greater rate than the world economy.
19. Cheap labour guarantees effective trade conditions.
20. Japan imports more meat and steal than France.
21. Most countries continue to prefer to trade with nearby nations.
22. Small computer components are manufactured in Germany.
18 - .........
19 - .........
20 - .........
21 - ..........
22 - ..........
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-K below.
Write the correct letter, A-K, in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.
A. tariffs B. components C. container ships
D. output E. employees F. insurance costs
G. Trade H. freight I. fares
J. software K. international
THE TRANSPORT REVOLUTION
Modern cargo-handling methods have had a significant effect on 23…………...as the business of moving freight around the world becomes increasingly streamlined. Manufactures of computers, for instance, are able to import 24……...…….from overseas, rather than having to rely on a local supplier. The introduction of 25…………………has meant that bulk cargo can be safely and efficiently moved over long distances. While international shipping is now efficient, there is still a need for governments to reduce 26………...…in order to free up the domestic cargo sector.
23 - ....................
24 - ....................
25 - ....................
26 - ....................
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 , which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages.
Climate Change and the Inuit
The threat posed by climate change in the Arctic and the problems faced by Canada's Inuit poeple
A. Unusual incidents are being reported across the Arctic. Inuit families going off on snowmobiles to prepare their summer hunting camps have found themselves cut off from home by a sea of mud, following early thaws. There are reports of igloos losing their insulating properties as the snow drips and refreezes, of lakes draining into the sea as permafrost melts, and sea ice breaking up earlier than usual, carrying seals beyond the search of hunters. Climate change may still be a rather abstract idea to most of us, but in the Arctic it is already having dramatic effects – if summertime ice continues to shrink at its present rate, the Arctic Ocean could soon become virtually ice-free in summer. The knock-on effects are likely to include more warming, cloudier skies, increased precipitation and higher sea levels. Scientists are increasingly keen to find out what’s going on because they consider the Arctic the ‘canary in the mine’ for global warming – a warming of what’s in store for the rest of the world.
B. For the Inuit the problem is urgent. They live in precarious balance with one of the toughest environments on earth. Climate change, whatever its causes, is a direct threat to their way of life. Nobody knows the Arctic as well as the locals, which is why they are not content simply to stand back and let outside experts tell them what’s happening. In Canada, where the Inuit people are jealously guarding their hard-won autonomy in the country’s newest territory, Nunavut, they believe their best hope of survival in this changing environment lies in combining their ancestral knowledge with the best of modern science. This is a challenge in itself.
C. The Canada Arctic is a vast, treeless polar desert that ‘s covered with snow for most of the year. Venture into this terrain and you get some idea of the hardships facing anyone who calls this home. Framing is out of the question and nature offers merge pickings. Humans first settled in the Arctic a mere 4,500 years ago, surviving by exploiting sea mammals and fish. The environment tested them to the limits: sometimes the colonists were successful, sometimes they failed and vanished. But around a thousand years ago, one group emerged that was uniquely well adapted to cope with the Arctic environment. These Thule people moved in from Alaska, bringing kayaks, sleds, dogs, pottery and iron tools. They are the ancestors of today’s Inuit people.
D. Life for the descendants of the Thule people is still harsh. Nunavut is 1.9 million square kilometers of rock and ice, and a handful of islands around the North Pole. It’s currently home to 2,500 people, all but a handful of them indigenous Inui. Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic ways and settled in the territory’s 28 isolated communities, but they still rely heavily on nature to provide food and clothing. Provisions available in local shops have to be flown into Nunavut on one of the most costly air networks in the world, or brought by supply ship during the few ice-free weeks of summer. It would cost a family around £7,000 a year to replace meat they obtained themselves through hunting with imported meat. Economic opportunities are scarce, and for many people state benefits are their income.
E. While the Inuit may not actually starve if hunting and trapping are curtailed by climate change, there has certainly been an impact on people’ s health. Obesity, heart disease and diabetes are beginning to appear in a people for women these have never before been problems. There has been a crisis of indentify as the traditional skills of hunting, trapping and preparing skins have begun to disappear. In Nunavut’s ‘igloo and email’ society, where adults who were born in igloos have children who may never have been out on the land, there’s a high incidence of depression.
F. With so much at stake, the Inuit are determined to play a key role in teasing out the mysteries of climate change in the Arctic. Having survived there for centuries, they believe their wealth of traditional knowledge is vital to the task. And Western scientists are starting to draw on this wisdom, increasingly referred to as ‘Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit’, or IQ. ‘In the early days scientists ignored us when they came up here to study anything. They just figured these people don’t know very much so we won’t ask them, ‘says John Amagoalik, an Inuit leader and politician. ‘But in recent years IQ has had much more credibility and weight.’ In fact it is now a requirement for anyone hoping to get permission to do research that they consult the communities, who are hoping to get permission to do research that they consult the communities, who are helping to set the research agenda to reflect their interests, or turn down applications from scientists they believe will work against their interests, or research projects that will impinge too much on their daily lives and traditional activities.
G. Some scientists doubt the value of traditional knowledge because the occupation of the Arctic doesn’t go back far enough. Others, however, point out that the first weather stations in the far north date back just 50 years. There are still huge gaps in our environmental knowledge, and despite the scientific, onslaught, many predictions are no more than best guesses. IQ could help to bridge the gap and resolve the tremendous uncertainty about how much of what we’re seeing is natural capriciousness and how much is the consequence of human activity.
Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs A-H. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet.
Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i. The reaction of the Inuit community to climate change
ii. Understanding of climate change remains limited
iii. Alternative sources of essential supplies
iv. Respect for Inuit opinion grows
v. A healthier choice of food
vi. A difficult landscape
vii. Negative effects on well-being
viii. Alarm caused by unprecedented event in the Arctic
ix. The benefits of an easier existence
Paragraph A viii
27. Paragraph B
28. Paragraph C
29. Paragraph D
30. Paragraph E
31. Paragraph F
32. Paragraph G
27 - ..............
28 - ..............
29 - ..............
30 - ..............
31 - ..............
32 - ..............
Complete the summary of paragraphs C and D below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from paragraphs C and D for each answer.
Write your answer in boxes 33-40 on your answer sheet.
If you visit the Canadian Arctic, you immediately appreciate the problems faced by people for whom this is home. It would clearly be impossible for the people to engage in 33 as a means of supporting themselves. For thousands of years they have had to rely o catching 34........................... and 35 ........................ as a means of sustenance. The harsh surroundings saw many who tried to settle there pushed to their limits, although some were successful. The 36...................... people were an example of the latter and for them the environment did not prove unmanageable. For the present inhabitants, life continues to be a struggle. The territory of Nunavut consists of little more than ice, rock and a few 37 ...................... In recent years, many of them have been obligated to give up their 38 ........................... lifestyle, but they continue to depend mainly on 39 ........................ for their food and clothes. 40 ..................... produce is particularly expensive.
- (a) competition
- (by) 2 percent %
- NOT GIVEN
- NOT GIVEN
- sea mammals
You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
By the year 2050, nearly 80% of the Earth‘s population will live in urban centres. Applying the most conservative estimates to current demographic trends, the human population will increase by about three billion people by then. An estimated 109 hectares of new land (about 20% larger than Brazil) will be needed to grow enough food to feed them, if traditional farming methods continue as they are practised today. At present, throughout the world, over 80% of the land that is suitable for raising crops is in use. Historically, some 15% of that has been laid waste by poor management practices. What can be done to ensure enough food for the world‘s population to live on ?
The concept of indoor farming is not new, since hothouse production of tomatoes and other produce has been in vogue for some time. What is new is the urgent need to scale up this technology to accommodate another three billion people. Many believe an entirely new approach to indoor farming is required, employing cutting-edge technologies. One such proposal is for the ‗Vertical Farm‘. The concept is of multi-storey buildings in which food crops are grown in environmentally controlled conditions. Situated in the heart of urban centres, they would drastically reduce the amount of transportation required to bring food to consumers. Vertical farms would need to be efficient, cheap to construct and safe to operate. If successfully implemented, proponents claim, vertical farms offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (through year-round production of all crops), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming.
It took humans 10,000 years to learn how to grow most of the crops we now take for granted. Along the way, we despoiled most of the land we worked, often turning verdant, natural ecozones into semi-arid deserts. Within that same time frame, we evolved into an urban species, in which 60% of the human population now lives vertically in cities. This means that, for the majority, we humans have shelter from the elements, yet we subject our food-bearing plants to the rigours of the great outdoors and can do no more than hope for a good weather year. However, more often than not now, due to a rapidly changing climate, that is not what happens. Massive floods, long droughts, hurricanes and severe monsoons take their toll each year, destroying millions of tons of valuable crops.
The supporters of vertical farming claim many potential advantages for the system. For instance, crops would be produced all year round, as they would be kept in artificially controlled, optimum growing conditions. There would be no weather-related crop failures due to droughts, floods or pests. All the food could be grown organically, eliminating the need for herbicides, pesticides and fertilisers. The system would greatly reduce the incidence of many infectious diseases that are acquired at the agricultural interface. Although the system would consume energy, it would return energy to the grid via methane generation from composting nonedible parts of plants. It would also dramatically reduce fossil fuel use, by cutting out the need for tractors, ploughs and shipping.
A major drawback of vertical farming, however, is that the plants would require artificial light. Without it, those plants nearest the windows would be exposed to more sunlight and grow more quickly, reducing the efficiency of the system. Single-storey greenhouses have the benefit of natural overhead light; even so, many still need artificial lighting.
A multi-storey facility with no natural overhead light would require far more. Generating enough light could be prohibitively expensive, unless cheap, renewable energy is available, and this appears to be rather a future aspiration than a likelihood for the near future. One variation on vertical farming that has been developed is to grow plants in stacked trays that move on rails. Moving the trays allows the plants to get enough sunlight. This system is already in operation, and works well within a single-storey greenhouse with light reaching it from above: it Is not certain, however, that it can be made to work without that overhead natural light.
Vertical farming is an attempt to address the undoubted problems that we face in producing enough food for a growing population. At the moment, though, more needs to be done to reduce the detrimental impact it would have on the environment, particularly as regards the use of energy. While it is possible that much of our food will be grown in skyscrapers in future, most experts currently believe it is far more likely that we will simply use the space available on urban rooftops.
Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
1 Some food plants, including _________ are already grown indoors.
2 Vertical farms would be located in _________ meaning that there would be less need to take them long distances to customers.
3 Vertical farms could use methane from plants and animals to produce _________
4 The consumption of _________ would be cut because agricultural vehicles would be unnecessary.
5 The fact that vertical farms would need _________ light is a disadvantage.
6 One form of vertical farming involves planting in _________ which are not fixed.
7 The most probable development is that food will be grown on _________ in towns and cities.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
8. Methods for predicting the Earth‘s population have recently changed.
9. Human beings are responsible for some of the destruction to food-producing land.
10. The crops produced in vertical farms will depend on the season.
11. Some damage to food crops is caused by climate change.
12. Fertilisers will be needed for certain crops in vertical farms.
13. Vertical farming will make plants less likely to be affected by infectious diseases.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
THE FALKIRK WHEEL
A unique engineering achievement
The Falkirk wheel in Scotland is the world's first and only rotating boat lift. Opened in 2002, it is central to the ambitious £84.5m Millennium Link project to restore navigability across Scotland by reconnecting the historic waterways of the Forth & Clyde and Union Canals.
The major challenge of the project lay in the fact that the Forth & Clyde Canal is situated 35 metres below the level of the Union Canal. Historically, the two canals had been joined near the town of Falkirk by a sequence of 11 locks - enclosed sections of canal in which the water level could be raised or lowered - that stepped down across a distance of 1.5 km. This had been dismantled in 1933, thereby breaking the link. When the project was launched in 1994, the British Waterways authority were keen to create a dramatic twenty-first- century landmark which would not only be a fitting commemoration of the Millennium, but also a lasting symbol of the economic regeneration of the region.
Numerous ideas were submitted for the project, including concepts ranging from rolling eggs to tilting tanks, from giant see-saws to overhead monorails. The eventual winner was a plan for the huge rotating steel boat lift which was to become The Falkirk Wheel. The unique shape of the structure is claimed to have been inspired by various sources, both manmade and natural, most notably a Celtic double¬ headed axe, but also the vast turning propeller of a ship, the ribcage of a whale or the spine of a fish.
The various parts of The Falkirk Wheel were ail constructed and assembled, like one giant toy building set, at Butterley Engineering's Steelworks in Derbyshire, some 400 km from Falkirk. A team there carefully assembled the 1,200 tonnes of steel, painstakingly fitting the pieces together to an accuracy of just 10 mm to ensure a perfect final fit. In the summer of 2001, the structure was then dismantled and transported on 35 lorries to Falkirk, before all being bolted back together again on the ground, and finally lifted into position in five large sections by crane. The Wheel would need to withstand immense and constantly changing stresses as it rotated, so to make the structure more robust, the steel sections were bolted rather than welded together. Over 45,000 bolt holes were matched with their bolts, and each bolt was hand-tightened. The Wheel consists of two sets of opposing axe-shaped arms, attached about 25 metres apart to a fixed central spine.
Two diametrically opposed water-filled 'gondolas', each with a capacity of 300,000 litres, are fitted between the ends of the arms. These gondolas always weigh the same, whether or not they are carrying boats. This is because, according to Archimedes' principle of displacement, floating objects displace their own weight in water. So when a boat enters a gondola, the amount of water leaving the gondola weighs exactly the same as the boat. This keeps the Wheel balanced and so, despite its enormous mass, it rotates through 180° in five and a half minutes while using very little power. It takes just 1.5 kilowatt-hours (5.4 MJ) of energy to rotate the Wheel - roughly the same as boiling eight small domestic kettles of water.
Boats needing to be lifted up enter the canal basin at the level of the Forth & Clyde Canal and then enter the lower gondola of the Wheel. Two hydraulic steel gates are raised, so as to seal the gondola off from the water in the canal basin. The water between the gates is then pumped out. A hydraulic clamp, which prevents the arms of the Wheel moving while the gondola is docked, is removed, allowing the Wheel to turn. In the central machine room an array often hydraulic motors then begins to rotate the central axle. The axle connects to the outer arms of the Wheel, which begin to rotate at a speed of 1/8 of a revolution per minute. As the wheel rotates, the gondolas are kept in the upright position by a simple gearing system. Two eight-metre-wide cogs orbit a fixed inner cog of the same width, connected by two smaller cogs travelling in the opposite direction to the outer cogs - so ensuring that the gondolas always remain level. When the gondola reaches the top, the boat passes straight onto the aqueduct situated 24 metres above the canal basin.
The remaining 11 metres of lift needed to reach the Union Canal is achieved by means of a pair of locks. The Wheel could not be constructed to elevate boats over the full 35-metre difference between the two canals, owing to the presence of the historically important Antonine Wall, which was built by the Romans in the second century AD. Boats travel under this wall via a tunnel, then through the locks, and finally on to the Union Canal.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
14. The Falkirk Wheel has linked the Forth & Clyde Canal with the Union Canal for the first time in their history.
15. There was some opposition to the design of the Falkirk Wheel at first.
16. The Falkirk Wheel was initially put together at the location where its components were manufactured.
17. The Falkirk Wheel is the only boat lift in the world which has steel sections bolted together by hand.
18. The weight of the gondolas varies according to the size of boat being carried.
19. The construction of the Falkirk Wheel site took into account the presence of a nearby
Label the diagram below. Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet
How a boat is lifted on the Falkirk Wheel
A pair of (20) are lifted in order to
A pair of (20)............... are lifted in order to shut out water from canal basin.
A (21)............is taken out enabling Wheel to rotate.
Hydraulic motors drive (22)................
A range of different - sized (23)................ensures boat keeps upright.
Boat reaches top Wheel, then moves directly onto (24)............
Boat travels through tunnel beneath Roman (25)............
(26)............... raise boat 11m to level of Union Canal.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Reducing the Effects of Climate Change
Mark Rowe reports on the increasingly ambitious geo-engineeringprojects being explored by scientists
Such is our dependence on fossil fuels, and such is rhe volume of carbon dioxide already released into the atmosphere, that many experts agree that significant global warming is now inevitable. Ihey believe that the best we can do is keep it at a reasonable level, and at present the only serious option for doing this is cutting back on our carbon emissions. But while a few countries are making major strides in this regard, the majority arc having great difficulty even stemming the rate of increase, let alone reversing it. Consequently, an increasing number of scientists are beginning to explore the alternative of geo-engineering - a term which generally refers to the intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment. According to its proponents, geo-engineering is the equivalent of a backup generator: if Plan A - reducing our dependency on fossil fuels - fails, we require a Plan B, employing grand schemes to slow down or reverse the process of global warming.
Gco-enginccring has been shown to work, at least on a small localised scale. For decades, May Day parades in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies, aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide and cement powder to disperse clouds. Many of the schemes now suggested look to do the opposite, and reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the planet. Ihe most eye-catching idea of all is suggested by Professor Roger Angel of the University of Arizona. His scheme would employ up to 16 trillion minute spacecraft, each weighing about one gram, to form a transparent, sunlight-refracting sunshade in an orbit 1.5 million km above the Earth. This could, argues Angel, reduce the amount of light reaching the Earth by two per cent.
The majority of geo-engineering projects so far carried out - which include planting forests in deserts and depositing iron in the ocean to stimulate the growth of algae - have focused on achieving a general cooling of the Earth. But some look specifically at reversing the melting at the poles, particularly the Arctic. The reasoning is that if you replenish the ice sheets and frozen waters of the high latitudes, more light will be reflected back into space, so reducing the warming of the oceans and atmosphere.
The concept of releasing aerosol sprays into the stratosphere above the Arctic has been proposed by several scientists. This would involve using sulphur or hydrogen sulphide aerosols so that sulphur dioxide would form clouds, which would, in turn, lead to a global dimming. Ihc idea is modelled on historic volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, which led to a short-term cooling of global temperatures by 0.5 °C. Scientists have also scrutinised whether it’s possible to preserve the ice sheets of Greenland with reinforced high-tension cables, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea. Meanwhile in the Russian Arctic, geo-engineering plans include the planting of millions of birch trees, whereas the regions native evergreen pines shade the snow and absorb radiation, birches would shed their
leaves in winter, thus enabling radiation to be reflected by the snow. Re-routing Russian rivers to increase cold water flow to ice-forming areas could also be used to slow down warming, say some climate scientists.
But will such schemes ever be implemented? Generally speaking, those who are most cautious about geo-engineering are the scientists involved in the research. Angel says that his plan is ‘no substitute for developing renewable energy: the only permanent solution". And Or Phil Rasch of the US-based Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is equally guarded about the role of geo-engineering: "1 think all of US agree that if we were to end geo-engineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly, and probably within ten to twenty years. That’s certainly something to worry about."
The US National Center for Atmospheric Research has already suggested that the proposal to inject sulphur into the atmosphere might affect rainfall patterns across the tropics and the Southern Ocean. "Geo-engineering plans to inject stratospheric aerosols or to seed clouds would act to cool the planet, and act to increase the extent of sea ice," says Rasch. "But all the models suggest some impact on the distribution of precipitation."
"A further risk with geo-engineering projects is that you can “overshoot”," says Dr Dan Lunt, from the University of Bristol’s School of Geophysical Sciences, who has studied the likely impacts of the sunshade and aerosol schemes on the climate. "You may bring global temperatures back to pre-industrial levels, but the risk is that the poles will still be warmer than they should be and the tropics will be cooler than before industrialisation." To avoid such a scenario, Lunt says Angel’s project would have to operate at half strength; all of which reinforces his view that the best option is to avoid the need for geo-engineering altogether.
The main reason why geo-engineering is supported by many in the scientific community is that most researchers have little faith in the ability of politicians to agree - and then bring in - the necessary carbon cuts. Even leading conservation organisations see the value of investigating the potential of geo-engineering. According to Dr Martin Sommerkorn, climate change advisor for the World Wildlife Fund’s International Arctic Programme, "Human-induced climate change has brought humanity to a position where we shouldn’t exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities."
Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs A-H Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet.
27. Mention of a geo-engineering project based on an earlier natural phenomenon
28. An example of a successful use of geo-engineering
29. A common definition of geo-engineering
Complete the table below. Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 30-36 on your answer sheet
|put a large number of tiny spacecraft into orbit far above Earth||to create a 30.................. that would reduce the amount of light reaching Earth|
|place 31 ................ in the sea||to encourage 32 ............... to form|
|release aerosol sprays into the stratosphere|
to create 33..................... that would reduce
the amount of light reaching Earth
|fix strong 34........................ to Greenland ice sheets||to prevent icebergs moving into the sea|
|plant trees in Russian Arctic that would lose their leaves in winter||to allow the 35 ............... to reflect radiation|
|change the direction of 36 ...............||to bring more cold water into ice-forming areas|
Look at the following statements (Questions 37-40) and the list of scientists below. Match each statement with the correct scientist, A-D. Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
37. The effects of geo-engineering may not be long-lasting.
38. Geo-engineering is a topic worth exploring.
39. It may be necessary to limit the effectiveness of geo-engineering projects.
40. Research into non-fossil-based fuels cannot be replaced by geo-engineering
List of Scientists
A. Roger Angel
B. Phil Rasch
C. Dan Lunt
D. Martin Sommerkorn
- urban centers
- fossil fuel
- (stacked) trays
- (urban) rooftops
- NOT GIVEN
- NOT GIVEN
- NOT GIVEN
RAISING THE MARY ROSE
How a sixteenth-century warship was recovered from the seabed.
On 19 July 1545, English and French fleets were engaged in a sea battle off the coast of southern England in the area of water called the Solent, between Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight. Among the English vessels was a warship by the name of Mary Rose. Built in Portsmouth some 35 years earlier, she had had a long and successful fighting career, and was a favourite of King Henry VIII. Accounts of what happened to the ship vary: while witnesses agree that she was not hit by the French, some maintain that she was outdated, overladen and sailing too low in the water, others that she was mishandled by undisciplined crew. What is undisputed, however, is that the Mary Rose sank into the Solent that day, taking at least 500 men with her. After the battle, attempts were made to recover the ship, but these failed.
The Mary Rose came to rest on the seabed, lying on her starboard (right) side at an angle of approximately 60 degrees. The hull (the body of the ship) acted as a trap for the sand and mud carried by Solent currents. As a result, the starboard side filled rapidly, leaving the exposed port (left) side to be eroded by marine organisms and mechanical degradation. Because of the way the ship sank, nearly all of the starboard half survived intact. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the entire site became covered with a layer of hard grey clay, which minimised further erosion.
Then, on 16 June 1836, some fishermen in the Solent found that their equipment was caught on an underwater obstruction, which turned out to be the Mary Rose. Diver John Deane happened to be exploring another sunken ship nearby, and the fishermen approached him, asking him to free their gear. Deane dived down, and found the equipment caught on a timber protruding slightly from the seabed. Exploring further, he uncovered several other timbers and a bronze gun. Deane continued diving on the site intermittently until 1840, recovering several more guns, two bows, various timbers, part of a pump and various other small finds.
The Mary Rose then faded into obscurity for another hundred years. But in 1965, military historian and amateur diver Alexander McKee, in conjunction with the British Sub-Aqua Club, initiated a project called "Solent Ships". While on paper this was a plan to examine a number of known wrecks in the Solent, what McKee really hoped for was to find the Mary Rose. Ordinary search techniques proved unsatisfactory, so
McKee entered into collaboration with Harold E. Edgerton, professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.In 1967, Edgerton‘s sidescan sonar systems revealed a large, unusually shaped object, which McKee believed was the Mary Rose.
Further excavations revealed stray pieces of timber and an iron gun. But the climax to the operation came when, on 5 May 1971, part of the ship‘s frame was uncovered. McKee and his team now knew for certain that they had found the wreck, but were as yet unaware that it also housed a treasure trove of beautifully preserved artefacts. Interest ^ in the project grew, and in 1979, The Mary Rose Trust was formed, with Prince Charles as its President and Dr Margaret Rule its Archaeological Director. The decision whether or not to salvage the wreck was not an easy one, although an excavation in 1978 had shown that it might be possible to raise the hull. While the original aim was to raise the hull if at all feasible, the operation was not given the go ahead until January 1982, when all the necessary information was available.
An important factor in trying to salvage the Mary Rose was that the remaining hull was an open shell. This led to an important decision being taken: namely to carry out the lifting operation in three very distinct stages. The hull was attached to a lifting frame via a network of bolts and lifting wires. The problem of the hull being sucked back downwards into the mud was overcome by using 12 hydraulic jacks. These raised it a few centimetres over a period of several days, as the lifting frame rose slowly up its four legs. It was only when the hull was hanging freely from the lifting frame, clear of the seabed and the suction effect of the surrounding mud, that the salvage operation progressed to the second stage. In this stage, the lifting frame was fixed to a hook attached to a crane, and the hull was lifted completely clear of the seabed and transferred underwater into the lifting cradle.This required precise positioning to locate the legs into the stabbing guides‘ of the lifting cradle. The lifting cradle was designed to fit the hull jusing archaeological survey drawings, and was fitted with air bags to provide additional cushioning for the hull‘s delicate timber framework. The third and final stage was to lift the entire structure into the air, by which time the hull was also supported from below. Finally, on 11 October 1982, millions of people around the world held their breath as the timber skeleton of the Mary Rose was lifted clear of the water, ready to be returned home to Portsmouth.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1.There is some doubt about what caused the Mary Rose to sink.
2. The Mary Rose was the only ship to sink in the battle of 19 July 1545.
3. Most of one side of the Mary Rose lay undamaged under the sea.
4. Alexander McKee knew that the wreck would contain many valuable historical
Look at the following statements (Questions 5-8) and the list of dates below. Match each statement with the correct date, A-G. Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.
5. A search for the Mary Rose was launched.
6. One person‘s exploration of the Mary Rose site stopped.
7. It was agreed that the hull of the Mary Rose should be raised.
8. The site of the Mary Rose was found by chance.
List of Dates
Label the diagram below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
9 ___________ attached to hull by wires
10 ___________ to prevent hull being sucked into mud
Legs are placed into 11 ___________ hull is lowered
Into 12 ___________
13 __________ used as extra protection for the hull
WHAT DESTROYED THE CIVILISATION OF WASTER ISLAND?
Easter Island, or Rapu Nui as it is known locally, is home to several hundred ancient human statues - the moai. After this remote Pacific island was settled by the Polynesians, it remained isolated for centuries. All the energy and resources that went into the moai - some of which are ten metres tall and weigh over 7,000 kilos - came from the island itself. Yet when Dutch explorers landed in 1722, they met a Stone Age culture. The moai were carved with stone tools, then transported for many kilometres, without the use of animals or wheels, to massive stone platforms. The identity of the moai builders was in doubt until well into the twentieth century. Thor Heyerdahl, the Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer, thought the statues had been created by pre-Inca peoples from Peru. Bestselling Swiss author Erich von Daniken believed they were built by stranded extraterrestrials. Modern science - linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence - has definitively proved the moai builders were Polynesians, but not how they moved their creations. Local folklore maintains that the statues walked, while researchers have tended to assume the ancestors dragged the statues somehow, using ropes and logs.
When the Europeans arrived, Rapa Nui was grassland, with only a few scrawny trees. In the 1970s and 1980s, though, researchers found pollen preserved in lake sediments, which proved the island had been covered in lush palm forests for thousands of years. Only after the Polynesians arrived did those forests
disappear. US scientist Jared Diamond believes that the Rapanui people - descendants of Polynesian settlers - wrecked their own environment. They had unfortunately settled on an extremely fragile island - dry, cool, and too remote to be properly fertilised by windblown volcanic ash. When the islanders cleared the forests for firewood and farming, the forests didn‘t grow back. As trees became scarce and they could no longer construct wooden canoes for fishing, they ate birds. Soil erosion decreased their crop yields. Before Europeans arrived, the Rapanui had descended into civil war and cannibalism, he maintains. The collapse of their isolated civilisation, Diamond writes, is a ‘worst-case scenario for what may lie ahead of us in our own future‘.
The moai, he thinks, accelerated the self-destruction. Diamond interprets them as power displays by rival chieftains who, trapped on a remote little island, lacked other ways of asserting their dominance. They competed by building ever bigger figures. Diamond thinks they laid the moai on wooden sledges, hauled over log rails, but that required both a lot of wood and a lot of people. To feed the people, even more land had to be cleared. When the wood was gone and civil war began, the islanders began toppling the moai. By the nineteenth century none were standing.
Archaeologists Terry Hunt of the University of Hawaii and Carl Lipo of California State University agree that Easter Island lost its lush forests and that it was an ‗ecological catastrophe' - but they believe the islanders themselves weren‘t to blame. And the moai certainly weren‘t. Archaeological excavations indicate that the Rapanui went to heroic efforts to protect the resources of their wind-lashed, infertile fields. They built thousands of circular stone windbreaks and gardened inside them, and used broken volcanic rocks to keep the soil moist. In short, Hunt and Lipo argue, the prehistoric Rapanui were pioneers of sustainable farming.
Hunt and Lipo contend that moai-building was an activity that helped keep the peace between islanders. They also believe that moving the moai required few people and no wood, because they were walked upright. On that issue, Hunt and Lipo say, archaeological evidence backs up Rapanui folklore. Recent experiments indicate that as few as 18 people could, with three strong ropes and a bit of practice, easily manoeuvre a 1,000 kg moai replica a few hundred metres. The figures‘ fat bellies tilted them forward, and a D-shaped base allowed handlers to roll and rock them side to side.
Moreover, Hunt and Lipo are convinced that the settlers were not wholly responsible for the loss of the island‘s trees. Archaeological finds of nuts from the extinct Easter Island palm show tiny grooves, made by the teeth of Polynesian rats. The rats arrived along with the settlers, and in just a few years, Hunt and Lipo calculate, they would have overrun the island. They would have prevented the reseeding of the slow-growing palm trees and thereby doomed Rapa Nui‘s forest, even without the settlers‘ campaign of deforestation. No doubt the rats ate birds‘ eggs too. Hunt and Lipo also see no evidence that Rapanui civilisation collapsed when the palm forest did. They think its population grew rapidly and then remained more or less stable until the arrival of the Europeans, who introduced deadly diseases to which islanders had no immunity. Then in the nineteenth century slave traders decimated the population, which shrivelled to 111 people by 1877.
Hunt and Lipo‘s vision, therefore, is one of an island populated by peacefu and ingenious moai builders and careful stewards of the land, rather than by reckless destroyers ruining their own environment and society. "Rather than a case of abject failure, Rapu Nui is an unlikely story of success", they claim. Whichever is the case, there are surely some valuable lessons which the world at large can learn from the story of Rapa Nui.
Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G. Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
14. Paragraph A
15. Paragraph B
16. Paragraph C
17. Paragraph D
18. Paragraph E
19. Paragraph F
20. Paragraph G
List of Headings
A. Evidence of innovative environment management practices
B. An undisputed answer to a question about the moai
C. The future of the moai statues
D. A theory which supports a local belief
E. The future of Easter Island
F. Two opposing views about the Rapanui people
G. Destruction outside the inhabitants‘ control
H. How the statues made a situation worse
M. Diminishing food resources
Question 21 - 24
Complete the summary below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 21-24 on your answer sheet
Jared Diamond’s View
Diamond believes that the Polynesian settlers on Rapa Nui destroyed its forests, cutting down its trees for fuel and clearing land for 21 ___________ Twentieth century discoveries of pollen prove that Rapu Nui had once been covered in palm forests, which had turned into grassland by the time the Europeans arrived on the island.When the islanders were no longer able to build the 22 ________ they needed to go fishing, they began using the island‘s 23 ___________ as a food source, according to Diamond.Diamond also claims that the moai were built to show the power of the island‘s chieftains, and that the methods of transporting the statues needed not only a great number of people, but also a great deal of 24 ___________
Questions 25 and 26
Choose a letters. Write the correct letters on your answer sheet.
25. On what points do Hunt and Lipo disagree with Diamond?
A. The period when the moai were created
B. How the moai were transported
26. On what points do Hunt and Lipo disagree with Diamond?
A. The impact of the moai on Rapanui society
B. How the moai were carved
C. The origins of the people who made the moai
An emerging discipline called neuroaesthetics is seeking to bring scientific objectivity to the study of art, and has already given us a better understanding of many masterpieces. The blurred imagery of Impressionist paintings seems to stimulate the brain's amygdala, for instance. Since the amygdala plays a crucial role in our feelings, that finding might explain why many people find these pieces so moving.
Could the same approach also shed light on abstract twentieth-century pieces, from Mondrian's geometrical blocks of colour, to Pollock's seeminglyhaphazardarrangements of splashed paint on canvas? Sceptics believe that people claim to like such works simply because they are famous. We certainly do have an inclination to follow the crowd. When asked to make simple perceptual decisions such as matching a shape to its rotated image, for example, people often choose a definitively wrong answer if they see others doing the same. It is easy to imagine that this mentality would have even more impact on a fuzzy concept like art appreciation, where there is no right or wrong answer.
Angelina Hawley-Dolan, of Boston College, Massachusetts, responded to this debate by asking volunteers to view pairs of paintings - either the creations of famous abstract artists or the doodles of infants, chimps and elephants. They then had to judge which they preferred. A third of the paintings were given no captions, while many were labelled incorrectly -volunteers might think they were viewing a chimp's messy brushstrokes when they were actually seeing anacclaimedmasterpiece.In each set of trials, volunteers generally preferred the work of renowned artists, even when they believed it was by an animal or a child. It seems that the viewer can sense the artist's vision in paintings, even if they can't explain why.
Robert Pepperell, an artist based at Cardiff University, creates ambiguous works that are neither entirely abstract nor clearly representational. In one study, Pepperell and his collaborators asked volunteers to decide how'powerful'they considered an artwork to be, and whether they saw anything familiar in the piece. The longer they took to answer these questions, the more highly they rated the piece under scrutiny, and the greater their neural activity. It would seem that the brain sees these images
as puzzles, and the harder it is to decipher the meaning, the more rewarding is the moment of recognition.
And what about artists such as Mondrian, whose paintings consist exclusively of horizontal and vertical lines encasing blocks of colour? Mondrian's works are deceptively simple, but eye-tracking studies confirm that they are meticulously composed, and that simpiy rotating a piece radically changes the way we view it. With the originals, volunteers'eyes tended to stay longer on certain places in the image, but with the altered versions they would flit across a piece more rapidly. As a result, the volunteers considered the altered versions less pleasurable when they later rated the work.
In a similar study, Oshin Vartanian of Toronto University asked volunteers to compare original paintings with ones which he had altered by moving objects around within the frame. He found that almost everyone preferred the original, whether it was a Van Gogh still life or an abstract by Miro. Vartanian also found that changing the composition of the paintings reduced activation in those brain areas linked with
meaning and interpretation.
In another experiment, Alex Forsythe of the University of Liverpool analysed the visual intricacy of different pieces of art, and her results suggest that many artists use a key level of detail to please the brain. Too little and the work is boring, but too much results in a kind of 'perceptual overload', according to Forsythe. What's more, appealing pieces both abstract and representational, show signs of 'fractals' -
repeated motifs recurring in different scales, fractals are common throughout nature, for example in the shapes of mountain peaks or the branches of trees. It is possible that our visual system, which evolved in the great outdoors, finds it easier to process such patterns.
It is also intriguing that the brain appears to process movement when we see a handwritten letter, as if we are replaying the writer's moment of creation. This has led some to wonder whether Pollock's works feel so dynamic because the brain reconstructs the energetic actions the artist used as he painted. This may be down to our brain's 'mirror neurons', which are known to mimic others' actions. The hypothesis will need to be thoroughly tested, however. It might even be the case that we could use neuroaesthetic studies to understand the longevity of some pieces of artwork. While the fashions of the time might shape what is currently popular, works that are best adapted to our visual system may be the most likely to linger once the trends of previous generations have been forgotten.
It's still early days for the field of neuroaesthetics - and these studies are probably only a taste of what is to come. It would, however, be foolish to reduce art appreciation to a set of scientific laws. We shouldn't underestimate the importance of the style of a particular artist, their place in history and the artistic environment of their time. Abstract art offers both a challenge and the freedom to play with different interpretations. In some ways, it's not so different to science, where we are constantly looking for systems and decoding meaning so that we can view and appreciate the world in a new way.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
27. In the second paragraph, the writer refers to a shape-matching test in order to illustrate
A. The subjective nature of art appreciation.
B. The reliance of modern art on abstract forms.
C. Our tendency to be influenced by the opinions of others.
D. A common problem encountered when processing visual data.
28. Angelina Hawley-Dolan‘s findings indicate that people
A. Mostly favour works of art which they know well.
B. Hold fixed ideas about what makes a good work of art.
C. Are often misled by their initial expectations of a work of art.
D. Have the ability to perceive the intention behind works of art.
29. Results of studies involving Robert Pepperell‘s pieces suggest that people
A. Can appreciate a painting without fully understanding it.
B. FInd it satisfying to work out what a painting represents.
C. Vary widely in the time they spend looking at paintings.
D. Generally prefer representational art to abstract art.
30. What do the experiments described in the fifth paragraph suggest about the paintings of Mondrian?
A. They are more carefully put together than they appear.
B. They can be interpreted in a number of different ways.
C. They challenge our assumptions about shape and colour.
D. They are easier to appreciate than many other abstract works.
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-H, below. Write the correct letters, A-H, in boxes 31-33 on your answer sheet.
Art and the Brain
The discipline of neuroaesthetics aims to bring scientific objectivity to the study of art. Neurological studies of the brain, for example, demonstrate the impact which Impressionist paintings have on our 31 ___________ Alex Forsythe of the University of Liverpool believes many artists give their works the precise degree of 32 ___________ which most appeals to the viewer‘s brain.She also observes that pleasing works of art often contain certain repeated 33 ___________ which occur frequently in the natural world.
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 34-39 on your answer sheet,write YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
34. Forsythe‘s findings contradicted previous beliefs on the function of ‗fractals‘ in art.
35. Certain ideas regarding the link between ‗mirror neurons‘ and art appreciation
require further verification.
36. People‘s taste in paintings depends entirely on the current artistic trends of the
37. Scientists should seek to define the precise rules which govern people‘s reactions
to works of art.
38. Art appreciation should always involve taking into consideration the cultural
context in which an artist worked.
39. It is easier to find meaning in the field of science than in that of art.
Question 40 Choose the correct letter; A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in box 40 on your answer sheet.
40. What would be the most appropriate subtitle for the article?
A. Some scientific insights into how the brain responds to abstract art
B. Recent studies focusing on the neural activity of abstract artists
C. A comparison of the neurological bases of abstract and representational art
D. How brain research has altered public opinion about abstract art
- NOT GIVEN
- (lifting) frame
- (lifting) hydraulic jacks
- stabbing guides
- (lifting) cradle
- air bags
- NOT GIVEN
- NOT GIVEN
RESEARCH USING TWINS
To biomedical researchers all over the world, twins offer a precious opportunity to untangle the influence of genes and the environment - of nature and nurture. Because identical twins come from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, they share virtually the same genetic code. Any differences between them -one twin having younger looking skin, for example - must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent in the sun.
Alternatively, by comparing the experiences of identical twins with those of fraternal twins, who come from separate eggs and share on average half their DNA, researchers can quantify the extent to which our genes affect our lives. If identical twins are more similar to each other with respect to an ailment than fraternal twins are, then vulnerability to the disease must be rooted at least in part in heredity.
These two lines of research - studying the differences between identical twins to pinpoint the influence of environment, and comparing identical twins with fraternal ones to measure the role ofinheritance - have been crucial to understanding the interplay of nature and nurture in determining our personalities, behavior, and vulnerability to disease.
The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase 'nature and nurture'). But twin studies took a surprising twist in the 1980s, with the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard's lab in what became known as the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Numerous tests were carried out on the twins, and they were each asked more than 15,000 questions.
Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept called heritability. in broad terms, the heritability of a trait measures the extent to which differences among members of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics. And wherever Bouchard and other scientists looked, it seemed, they found the invisible hand of genetic influence helping to shape our lives.
Lately, however, twin studies have helped lead scientists to a radical new conclusion: that nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes, and in others operates on its own to shape who we are.
Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions tied to neither nature nor nurture but representing what researchers have called a 'third component'. These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned on or off, to build our bones, brains and all the other parts of our bodies.
If you think of our DNA as an immense piano keyboard and our genes as the keys - each key symbolizing a segment of DNA responsible for a particular note, or trait, and all the keys combining to make us who we are - then epigenetic processes determine when and how each key can be struck, changing the tune being played.
One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts on genes. Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up. Other epigenetic processes appear to occur randomly, while others are normal, such as those that guide embryonic cells as they become heart, brain, or liver cells, for example.
Geneticist Danielle Reed has worked with many twins over the years and thought deeply about what twin studies have taught us. 'It's very clear when you look at twins that much of what they share is hardwired,' she says. 'Many things about them are absolutely the same and unalterable. But it's also clear, when you get to know them, that other things about them are different. Epigenetics is the origin of a lot of those differences, in my view.'
Reed credits Thomas Bouchard's work for today's surge in twin studies. 'He was the trailblazer,' she says. 'We forget that 50 years ago things like heart disease were thought to be caused entirely by lifestyle. Schizophrenia was thought to be due to poor mothering. Twin studies have allowed us to be more reflective about what people are actually born with and what's caused by experience.'
Having said that, Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further. 'What I like to say is that nature writes some things in pencil and some things in pen,' she says. 'Things written in pen you can't change. That's DNA. But things written in pencil you can. That's epigenetics. Now that we're actually able to look at the DNA and see where the pencil writings are, it's sort of a whole new world.'
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write: TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1. There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.
2. Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins.
3. Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.
4. Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes.
Look at the following statements (Questions 5-9) and the list of researchers below. Match each statement with the correct researcher, A, B or C. Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 5-9 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.
5. Invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics
6. Expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge
7. Developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences
8. Pioneered research into genetics using twins
9. Carried out research into twins who had lived apart
A. Francis Galton
B. Thomas Bouchard
C. Danielie Reed
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-F, below. Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.
In epigenetic processes, 10...............influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal 11 ...............The study of epigenetic processes is uncovering a way in which our genes can be affected by our 12................. One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may later show problems in its 13 .................
AN INTRODUCTION TO FILM SOUND
Though we might think of film as an essentially visual experience, we really cannot afford to underestimate the importance of film sound. A meaningful sound track is often as complicated as the image on the screen, and is ultimately just as much the responsibility of the director. The entire sound track consists of three essential ingredients: the human voice, sound effects and music. These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects. Topics which essentially refer to the three previously mentioned tracks are discussed below. They include dialogue, synchronous and asynchronous sound effects, and music.
Let us start with dialogue. As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. Thus, for example, the actor Humphrey Bogart is the character Sam Spade; film personality and life personality seem to merge. Perhaps this is because the very texture of a performer's voice supplies an element of character.
When voice textures fit the performer's physiognomy and gestures, a whole and very realistic persona emerges. The viewer sees not an actor working at his craft, but another human being struggling with life. It is interesting to note that how dialogue is used and the very amount of dialogue used varies widely among films. For example, in the highly successful science-fiction film 2001, little dialogue was evident, and most of it was banal and of little intrinsic interest. In this way the film-maker was able to portray what Thomas Sobochack and Vivian Sobochack call, in An Introduction to Film, the 'inadequacy of human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe'.
The comedy Bringing Up Baby, on the other hand, presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at breakneck speed. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character played by Katherine Hepburn, but also the absurdity of the film itself and thus its humor. The audience is bounced from gag to gag and conversation to conversation; there is no time for audience reflection. The audience is caught up in a whirlwind of activity in simply managing to follow the plot. This film presents pure escapism - largely due to its frenetic dialogue.
Synchronous sound effects are those sounds which are synchronized or matched with what is viewed. For example, if the film portrays a character playing the piano, the sounds of the piano are projected. Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example, the 'click' of a door being opened may simply serve to convince the audience that the image portrayed is real, and the audience may only subconsciously note the expected sound.
However, if the 'click' of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary, the sound mixer may call attention to the 'click' with an increase in volume; this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense. Asynchronous sound effects, on the other hand, are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen. Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate emotional nuance, and they may also add to the realism of the film. For example, a film-maker might opt to include the background sound of an ambulance's siren while the foreground sound and image portrays an arguing couple. The asynchronous ambulance siren underscores the psychic injury incurred in the argument; at the same time the noise of the siren adds to the realism of the film by acknowledging the film's city setting.
We are probably all familiar with background music in films, which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence. We are aware that it is used to add emotion and rhythm. Usually not meant to be noticeable, it often provides a tone or an emotional attitude toward the story and /or the characters depicted. In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster. Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes. For example, a particular musical theme associated with an individual character or situation may be repeated at various points in a film in order to remind the audience of salient motifs or ideas.
Film sound comprises conventions and innovations. We have come to expect an acceleration of music during car chases and creaky doors in horror films. Yet, it is important to note as well that sound is often brilliantly conceived. The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds. We need to foster an awareness of film sound as well as film space so as to truly appreciate an art form that sprang to life during the twentieth century - the modern film.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D Write the correct letter in boxes 14—18 on your answer sheet
14. In the first paragraph, the writer makes a point that....
A. The director should plan the sound track at an early stage in filming.
B. It would be wrong to overlook the contribution of sound to the artistry of films.
C. The music industry can have a beneficial influence on sound in film
D. It is important for those working on the sound in a film to have sole responsibility for it.
15. One reason that the writer refers to Humphrey Bogart is to exemplify
A. The importance of the actor and the character appearing to have similar personalities.
B. The audience’s wish that actors are visually appropriate for their roles.
C. The value of the actor having had similar feelings to the character.
D. The audience’s preference for dialogue to be as authentic as possible.
16. In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that....
A . Audiences are likely to be critical of film dialogue that does not reflect their own experience.
B. Film dialogue that appears to be dull may have a specific purpose.
C. Filmmakers vary considerably in the skill with which they handle dialogue.
D. The most successful films are those with dialogue of a high Quality.
17. What does the writer suggest about Bringing Up?
A. The plot suffers from the filmmaker’s wish to focus on humorous dialogue.
B. The dialogue helps to make it one of the best comedy films ever produced.
C. There is a mismatch between the speed of the dialogue and the speed of actions.
D. The nature of the dialogue emphasises key elements of the film.
18. The writer refers to the ‘click’ of a door to make the point that realistic sounds
A . Are often used to give the audience a false impression of events in the film.
B. May be interpreted in different ways by different members of the audience.
C. May be modified in order to manipulate the audience’s response to the film.
D. Tend to be more significant in films presenting realistic situations.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
19. Audiences are likely to be surprised if a film lacks background music.
20. Background music may anticipate a development in a film.
21. Background music has more effect on some people than on others.
22 . Background music may help the audience to make certain connections within the film.
23 . Audiences tend to be aware of how the background music is affecting them.
Complete each sentence with the correct , below. Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.
24. The audience’s response to different parts of a film can be controlled
25. The feelings and motivations of characters become clear
26. A character seems to be a real person rather than an actor
A. when the audience listens to the dialogue.
B. if the film reflects the audience’s own concerns.
C. if voice, sound and music are combined appropriately.
D. when the director is aware of how the audience will respond.
E. when the actor s appearance, voice and moves are consistent with each other.
‘THIS MARVELOUS INVENTION’
Of all mankinds manifold creations, language must take pride of place. Other inventions -the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread - may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it. Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.
But language is foremost not just because it came first. In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: ‘this marvellous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expressions which, whilst having in themselves no likeness to what is in our mind, allow us to disclose to others its whole secret, and to make known to those who cannot penetrate it all that we imagine, and all the various stirrings of our soul’ This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement. Even so, there is just one flaw in all these hymns of praise, for the homage to languages unique accomplishment conceals a simple yet critical incongruity. Language is mankind s greatest invention - except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.
Language often seems so skillfully drafted that one can hardly imagine it as anything other than the perfected handiwork of a master craftsman. How else could this instrument make so much out of barely three dozen measly morsels of sound? In themselves, these configurations of mouth p,f,b,v,t,d,k,g,sh,a,e and so on - amount to nothing more than a few haphazard spits and splutters, random noises with no meaning, no ability to express, no power to explain. But run them through the cogs and wheels of the language machine, let it arrange them in some very special orders, and there is nothing that these meaningless streams of air cannot do: from sighing the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.
the most extraordinary thing about language, however, is that one doesn’t have to be a genius to set its wheels in motion. The language machine allows just about everybody from pre-modern foragers in the subtropical savannah, to post-modern philosophers in the suburban sprawl - to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without the slightest exertion. Yet it is precisely this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success, since in everyday life its triumphs are usually taken for granted. The wheels of language run so smoothly that one rarely bothers to stop and think about all the resourcefulness and expertise that must have gone into making it tick. Language conceals art.
Often, it is only the estrangement of foreign tongues, with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of languages design. One of the showiest stunts that some languages can pull off is an ability to build up words of breath-breaking length, and thus express in one word what English takes a whole sentence to say. The Turkish word çehirliliçtiremediklerimizdensiniz, to take one example, means nothing less than ‘you are one of those whom we can’t turn into a town-dweller’. (In case you were wondering, this monstrosity really is one word, not merely many different words squashed together - most ol its components cannot even stand up on their own.)
And if that sounds like some one-off freak, then consider Sumerian, the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates some 5,000 years ago by the people who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history. A Sumerian word like munintuma'a (‘when he had made it suitable for her’) might seem rather trim compared to the Turkish colossus above. What is so impressive about it, however, is not its lengthiness but rather the reverse - the thrifty compactness of its construction. The word is made up of different slots, each corresponding to a particular portion of meaning. This sleek design allows single sounds to convey useful information, and in fact even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific. If you were to ask which bit in the Sumerian word corresponds to the pronoun ‘it’ in the English translation ‘when he had made it suitable for her’, then the answer would have to be nothing. Mind you, a very particular kind of nothing: the nothing that stands in the empty slot in the middle. The technology is so fine-tuned then that even a non-sound, when carefully placed in a particular position, has been invested with a specific function. Who could possibly have come up with such a nifty contraption?
Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A-F. Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-vii, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
a. Differences between languages highlight their impressiveness
b. The way in which a few sounds are organised to convey a huge range of meaning
c. Why the sounds used in different languages are not identical
d. Apparently incompatible characteristics of language
e. Even silence can be meaningful
f. Why language is the most important invention of all
g. The universal ability to use language
27. Paragraph A
28. Paragraph B
29. Paragraph C
30. Paragraph D
31. Paragraph E
32. Paragraph F
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-G, below. Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.
The importance of language
The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on 33 __________ aspects of life, but no impact has been as 34 __________ as that of language. Language is very 35 __________ , yet composed of just a small number of sounds. Language appears to be 36 __________ to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
37. Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.
38. The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language.
39. A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word.
40. The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events.
- NOT GIVEN
- NOT GIVEN
- NOT GIVEN
- NOT GIVEN
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